Among them are sexually transmitted diseases, chicken pox, rubella, group B streptococcal infection, etc. Fortunately, many of these conditions can be prevented and treated, provided that the pregnant woman regularly attends medical check-ups and does all the necessary investigations (some investigations will be done before becoming pregnant).
According to neonatologists, 60% of premature births are caused by diseases transmitted from mother to fetus. Here they are!
Diseases transmitted from mother to fetus – sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)
These are the infections that are transmitted through unprotected sexual activity. The most well-known sexually transmitted infections are the HIV virus, syphilis, gonorrhea, genital herpes, viral hepatitis, genital warts (genital warts), chlamydia, trichomoniasis (Tricomonas) and genital candidiasis.
Although the HIV virus cannot be treated, there are currently several drugs that can be administered to prevent transmission of the infection to the fetus during pregnancy.
To fight effectively herpes simplex virus (HBV), the specialist doctor will prescribe a treatment based on antiviral medication. In the case of women with active genital herpes, specialist doctors will resort to cesarean delivery.
Pregnant women who contacted gonorrhea are normally treated with antibiotics. Due to the fact that most of the time gonorrhea is asymptomatic, specialists administer special medicines at the birth of each child to prevent infection of the eyes with gonorrhea.
In case of exposure to HPV virus, the treatment of the mother will be postponed until after the birth of the child. The treatment for this medical condition is based on antibiotics.
If syphilis was contacted during pregnancy, specialist doctors will prescribe the administration of a treatment based on antibiotics to prevent the development of this medical condition in the mother’s body, as well as to prevent its transmission to the fetus.
Syphilis is one of the sexually transmitted diseases that can be easily transmitted from mother to fetus, even causing the death of the fetus. Newborns who survive develop multiple conditions in the brain, eyes, ears, heart, skin, teeth and bone system.
If during pregnancy the mother is diagnosed with hepatitis Bat birth the fetus will receive an injection based on antibiotics to prevent infection of the child.
If a pregnant woman has hepatitis C, could transmit the infection to her child, although the risk is lower than in the case of hepatitis B or HIV. Anyway, at birth the child will be tested and specialized measures will be taken if the virus is present.
As for the effective treatment of trichomoniasis, the specialist doctors will administer drug treatment to the mother.
Diseases transmitted from mother to fetus – toxoplasmosis Gondi infection
Toxoplasma Gondi is a parasite that is transmitted to pregnant women from cats, and pregnant women can become infected at any time during pregnancy. This parasite can cause severe infections in the newborn or congenital malformations, such as: hydrocephalus or intracerebral calcifications or chorioretinitis which will eventually lead to blindness.
Diseases transmitted from mother to fetus – cytomegalovirus
This causes intrauterine growth retardation in the child, with severe infection. Children born with such problems either do not survive or remain with neurological disorders. That is precisely why the pregnant woman must be monitored and tests must be done to detect and isolate the virus from the urine.
Diseases transmitted from mother to fetus – rubella
If the infection occurs in the first trimester of pregnancy, spontaneous abortion may occur or the fetus may acquire serious congenital malformations. Women who have not had rubella and want to become pregnant should be vaccinated against rubella, because rubella can cause heart defects, deafness and cataracts in the newborn.
Diseases transmitted from mother to fetus – chicken pox
Chickenpox infection during pregnancy can be dangerous for both the pregnant woman and the fetus. Thus, if the pregnant woman falls ill in the first trimester of pregnancy, the embryo will suffer a lot, because there is a risk that the baby will develop congenital varicella and congenital malformations in one or more organs.
If the disease is contracted in the second trimester of pregnancy, the risks are much lower because the mother will develop protective antibodies a week after the onset of chicken pox. These antibodies will pass through the placenta to the fetus.
The most dangerous period of getting chickenpox is 5 days before birth and two days after birth. The mother’s body is weakened and does not have the necessary time to produce those protective antibodies.
Newborns whose mothers contracted chickenpox during the critical period near birth develop another serious form of the disease, namely neonatal chickenpox. This form of chicken pox is life-threatening to the newborn due to complications, including pneumonia with respiratory failure and coma. Treatment of neonatal varicella is, unfortunately, difficult and often without result.
Diseases transmitted from mother to fetus – group B streptococcus
Group B streptococcus is a bacteria that 30% of people have in their bodies, but without causing health problems or symptoms. In women, it is found in the vagina or intestines and generally does not cause any problems during pregnancy. In a small number of pregnancies, this bacterium is transmitted to the fetus and can lead to serious illnesses for the little one.
The infection is transmitted at the time of birth, through the passage of the bacteria from the vagina to the uterus. If the streptococcus gets into the baby’s blood, it can get meningitis or pneumonia. This infection is treated with intravenous antibiotics during labor.